John Graves Simcoe Biography


Who is John Graves Simcoe? Information on John Graves Simcoe biography, life story, works and military career.

John-Graves-SimcoeJohn Graves Simcoe; (1752-1806), British army officer, who was the first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada (Ontario). He was born in Cotterstock, Northumberland, on Feb. 25, 1752. Entering the army as an ensign in 1771, he served throughout the American Revolution, surrendering at Yorktown with Cornwallis. His Journal of the Operations of the Queens Rangers (1787) is an account of the force that he led. He became a member of the House of Commons in 1790, and two years later returned to North America as lieutenant governor of Upper Canada.

On July 8, 1792, Simcoe established his capi-ital at Newark (later Niagara), but moved it in 1793 to Toronto. He encouraged settlement by American Loyalists and assisted agricultural development of the country. During 1796-1797 he commanded the British forces fighting in Santo Domingo against both the French and Toussaint L’Ouverture. After returning to Britain he was appointed commander in chief in India. Simcoe died in Torbay, Devonshire, on Oct. 26, 1806, before assuming office.


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